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Thromb J. 2010 Nov 07;8:17. doi: 10.1186/1477-9560-8-17.

Risk factors for perioperative venous thromboembolism: A retrospective study in Japanese women with gynecologic diseases.

Thrombosis journal

Nao Suzuki, Norihito Yoshioka, Tatsuru Ohara, Noriyuki Yokomichi, Takafumi Nako, Namiko Yahagi, Suguru Igarashi, Yoichi Kobayashi, Misako Yoshimatsu, Kenji Takizawa, Yasuo Nakajima, Kazushige Kiguchi, Bunpei Ishizuka


  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St, Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan. [email protected].

PMID: 21054901 PMCID: PMC2989308 DOI: 10.1186/1477-9560-8-17


BACKGROUND: Patients with gynecologic cancer have a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) like patients with other cancers. However, there is little information on risk factors for VTE during gynecologic surgery and no uniform preventive strategy. Our objectives were to identify risk factors for perioperative VTE in gynecologic patients and establish methods for prevention.

METHODS: We analyzed 1,232 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of St. Marianna University School of Medicine between January 2005 and June 2008. We investigated (1) risk factors for preoperative VTE, (2) use of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, and (3) risk factors for postoperative VTE.

RESULTS: There were 39 confirmed cases of perioperative VTE (3.17%), including 25 patients with preoperative VTE and 14 with postoperative VTE. Thirty-two patients had cancer and seven patients had benign diseases. Twenty-two of the 32 cancer patients (68.7%) had preoperative VTE, while postoperative VTE occurred in 10 cancer patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that ovarian cancer, tumor diameter ≥10 cm, and previous of VTE were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE. Among ovarian cancer patients, multivariate analysis showed that an age ≥50 years, the presence of heart disease, clear cell adenocarcinoma, and tumor diameter ≥20 cm were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE. The factors significantly related to preoperative VTE in patients with benign disease included previous VTE, age ≥55 years, tumor diameter ≥20 cm, and a history of allergic-immunologic disease. Thirteen of the 25 patients (52%) with preoperative VTE had an IVC filter inserted preoperatively. Postoperative screening (interview and D-dimer measurement) revealed VTE in 14/1,232 patients (1.14%). Multivariate analysis indicated that cancer surgery, a history of allergic-immunologic disease, and blood transfusion ≥2,000 ml were independent risk factors for postoperative VTE.

CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative VTE is often fatal and preventive measures should be taken in the gynecologic field, especially when patients have the risk factors identified in this study. Since VTE is often present before surgery, preoperative screening is important and use of an IVC filter should be considered.


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