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Front Oncol. 2021 Nov 26;11:752948. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2021.752948. eCollection 2021.

Cohort Profile: The Socioeconomic Consequences in Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (SALiCCS) Research Programme.

Frontiers in oncology

Friederike Erdmann, Line Elmerdahl Frederiksen, Hanna Mogensen, Camilla Pedersen, Luzius Mader, Mats Talbäck, Andrea Bautz, Elli Hirvonen, Anniina Kyrönlahti, Liisa Maria Korhonen, Henrik Hasle, Nea Malila, Laura-Maria Madanat-Harjuoja, Maria Feychting, Jeanette Falck Winther


  1. Childhood Cancer Research Group, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. Division of Childhood Cancer Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
  3. Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
  4. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
  5. Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, Finland.
  6. New Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
  7. Department of Paediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
  8. Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
  9. Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

PMID: 34900702 PMCID: PMC8662544 DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2021.752948


INTRODUCTION: The growing number of survivors of childhood cancer, with many years of life ahead, demonstrates the increasing clinical and public health relevance of investigating the risks of social and socioeconomic impairment after a childhood cancer diagnosis and the life-saving treatment. To enrich understanding of the mental, social and socioeconomic difficulties that childhood cancer survivors may face during their life-course, identify particularly vulnerable survivors and overcome the limitations of previous research, we initiated the Socioeconomic Consequences in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (SALiCCS) research programme.

METHODS: This Nordic cross-border research programme is a collaboration between the Danish Cancer Society, the Finnish Cancer Registry and Karolinska Institutet to investigate a broad range of mental, social and socioeconomic conditions in long-term childhood cancer survivors in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. SALiCCS is based on a registry-based matched cohort design, comprising five-year survivors of cancer diagnosed at ages 0-19 years (1971-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2009 in Finland, 1971-2011 in Sweden), age-, sex- and country-matched population comparisons and sibling comparisons who were followed over time. Outcomes of interest included mental disorders, educational achievements, employment and profession, family life and the need of social security benefits. Individual-level data linkage among various national registries provided the data for the research programme.

RESULTS: The SALiCCS core population comprises 21,292 five-year survivors, 103,303 population comparisons and 29,644 siblings as a second comparison group. The most common diagnoses in survivors were central nervous system tumours, leukaemias and lymphomas.

DISCUSSION: SALiCCS is the largest, most comprehensive population-based research initiative in this field, based on high-quality registry data with minimal risk of bias. The findings will be informative for evidence-based survivorship care targeting not only somatic late effects but also psychosocial impairments.

Copyright © 2021 Erdmann, Frederiksen, Mogensen, Pedersen, Mader, Talbäck, Bautz, Hirvonen, Kyrönlahti, Korhonen, Hasle, Malila, Madanat-Harjuoja, Feychting and Winther.

Keywords: Denmark; Finland; Sweden; childhood cancer survivors; family life; register-based research; social and socioeconomic outcomes; survivorship

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


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