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J Toxicol Environ Health. 1977 Sep;3(1):207-18. doi: 10.1080/15287397709529560.

Epidemiological relationship between steroid hormones and liver lesions.

Journal of toxicology and environmental health

E Mahboubi, P Shubik

PMID: 926188 DOI: 10.1080/15287397709529560


In the past 3 yr, over 140 cases of benign liver cell adenomas in young women who have used oral contraceptives have been reported in the world's medical literature. In the past, these tumors have been considered rare. Although hepatic cell tumors are benign, reports have indicated that the onset of the disease is of a critical nature--victims are frequently subject to sudden pain, shock, and hemorrhage, and a fatality rate of 10% was recorded in the aforementioned reports. In light of these facts, an epidemiological study was initiated in Nebraska. As a result, 20 new cases have been recorded of hepatic cell tumors in oral contraceptive users.

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