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Surg Endosc. 2016 Jan;30(1):279-87. doi: 10.1007/s00464-015-4206-x. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

A stepwise model for simulation-based curriculum development for clinical skills, a modification of the six-step approach.

Surgical endoscopy

Nehal N Khamis, Richard M Satava, Sami A Alnassar, David E Kern


  1. Medical Education Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925(45), Riyadh, 11461, Saudi Arabia. [email protected].
  2. Medical Education and Pathology Departments, College of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. [email protected].
  3. Surgery Department, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
  4. Medical Education and Thoracic Surgery Departments, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  5. General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

PMID: 25899812 DOI: 10.1007/s00464-015-4206-x


BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid growth in the use of simulation in health professions education, courses vary considerably in quality. Many do not integrate efficiently into an overall school/program curriculum or conform to academic accreditation requirements. Moreover, some of the guidelines for simulation design are specialty specific.

STUDY DESIGN: We designed a model that integrates best practices for effective simulation-based training and a modification of Kern et al.'s 6-step approach for curriculum development. We invited international simulation and health professions education experts to complete a questionnaire evaluating the model. We reviewed comments and suggested modifications from respondents and reached consensus on a revised version of the model.

RESULTS: We recruited 17 simulation and education experts. They expressed a consensus on the seven proposed curricular steps: problem identification and general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, individual assessment/feedback, program evaluation, and implementation. We received several suggestions for descriptors that applied the steps to simulation, leading to some revisions in the model.

CONCLUSION: We have developed a model that integrates principles of curriculum development and simulation design that is applicable across specialties. Its use could lead to high-quality simulation courses that integrate efficiently into an overall curriculum.

Keywords: Curriculum development; Model; Simulation; Six step


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